A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful groups. The term has a pejorative connotation, implying that the appeal to a conspiracy is based on prejudice or insufficient evidence. Conspiracy theories resist falsification.
They are supported by circular reasoning:
1. Evidence against the conspiracy.
2. An absence of evidence for it is re-interpreted as evidence of its truth.
The conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved.
1. THE FLAT EARTH THEORY
Modern flat Earth belief originated with the English writer Samuel Rowbotham (1816–1884). He later expanded this into the book Earth Not a Globe. He propose that the Earth is a flat disc center at the North Pole. It’s bound along its southern edge by a wall of ice, Antarctica. Rowbotham further held that the Sun and Moon were 3,000 miles (4,800 km) above Earth. The “cosmos” was 3,100 miles (5,000 km) above the Earth. Modern flat Earth societies are organizations that promote the non-scientific belief that the Earth is flat while denying the Earth’s sphericity. Such groups date from the middle of the 20th century; some adherents are serious and some are not.
Through the use of social media, flat Earth theories have been increasingly adopt by individuals unaffiliated with larger groups.
Flat-Earthers claim that NASA and other government agencies forced the public into believing the Earth is spherical. According to most talked theory, NASA is guarding the Antarctic ice wall that surrounds Earth. Flat-Earthers argue that NASA photoshops its satellite images. Based on observations that the color of the oceans changes from image to image and that continents seem to be in different places. The publicly perpetuate image keep up through a large-scale practice of “compartmentalization”. According to which only a select number of individuals have knowledge about the truth.
Illuminati is a powerful and savagely guarded organisation that secretly controls the entire modern world, probably while wearing cloaks. It has done this mainly through infiltrating the media and brainwashing everybody. It could be doing it right now.
The Illuminati has existed since the dawn of time. We can see it’s mark on the pyramids. Its influence was evident around the life of Christ, and their top bananas – such as for example the Queen – are in fact ancient lizards dating from an era before man existed. Alternately, it was found in Bavaria on 1 May 1776, by a man know as Adam Weishaupt. He couldn’t afford the Freemason admission fee. His society – The Order of the Illuminati – grew from five members to thousands in just a few years. But then, after Karl Theodor became ruler of Bavaria. Then secret societies were made punishable by death, and there the order ended.
Knowing anything at all about the Illuminati is very risky – first because they will suspect you are on to them. Track you down ruthlessly. Secondly, because you could accidentally end up mentioning some of these facts in a conversation. Nobody will take you seriously ever again.
Conspiracy theories concerning the Illuminati, a short-lived 18th-century Enlightenment-era secret society. It appears to have originated in the late 19th century. When some conservatives in Europe came to believe that the group has been responsible for the French Revolution of 1789–1799. Hoaxes about the Illuminati spread in the 1960s by a group of American practical jokers known as the Discordians. Who, for example, wrote a series of fake letters about the Illuminati to Playboy.
3. MOON LANDINGS WERE STAGED BY NASA IN A FILM STUDIO
Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes stage by NASA, possibly with the aid of other organizations. The most notable claim is that the six crewed landings (1969–1972) were fake. Twelve Apollo astronauts did not actually walk on the Moon. Various groups and individuals have made claims since the mid-1970s that NASA and others knowingly misled the public into believing the landings happened, by manufacturing, tampering with, or destroying evidence including photos, telemetry tapes, radio and TV transmissions, and Moon rock samples.
The moon landing is perform behind the close doors. Generally, Stanley Kubrick is depicted as having directed the faked moon landing, usually in reference to his well-known perfectionism and attention to detail, as well as the “realistic” lunar scenes in 2001: A Space Odyssey, shot before the actual moon landing (which actually depict a lunar landscape quite unlike that of the real lunar surface). NASA really did land on the moon (many times in fact), and there’s an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence to prove it.
Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associate Moon landings were hoaxes stage by NASA, possibly with the aid of other organizations. The most notable claim is that the six crewed landings (1969–1972) were fake and that twelve Apollo astronauts did not actually walk on the Moon.
4. NEW COKE
By 1985, Coca-Cola had been losing market share to diet soft drinks and non-cola beverages for many years. Blind taste tests indicate that consumers seems to prefer the sweeter taste of rival Pepsi-Cola, and so the Coca-Cola recipe was reformulate. However, the American public’s reaction to the change was negative, and “New Coke” was consider as a major failure. The company reintroduced Coke’s original formula within three months, rebranded “Coca-Cola Classic”, resulting in a significant sales boost. This led to speculation New Coke formula had been a marketing ploy to stimulate sales of original Coca-Cola, which the company has denied.
Coke II was discontinued in July 2002. It remains influential as a cautionary tale against tampering with a well-established and successful brand. In May 2019, it is announce that the 1985 formulation (bearing the name “New Coke”) would be reintroduce to promote the third season of the Netflix series Stranger Things which takes place in 1985.
A theory claims that The Coca-Cola Company intentionally changed to an inferior formula with New Coke, with the intent either of driving up demand for the original product or permitting the reintroduction of the original with a new formula using cheaper ingredients. Coca-Cola president Donald Keough rebutted this charge: “The truth is, we’re not that dumb, and we’re not that smart.
5. 9/11 WAS AN INSIDE JOB
There are many Conspiracy theories that attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks against the United States to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda, including that there was the advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials. Government investigations and independent reviews have rejected these theories. Proponents of these theories assert that there are inconsistencies in the commonly accept version or evidence that was been either ignore or overlook.
Possible motives claimed by conspiracy theorists for such actions include justifying the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Even though the U.S. government has also given a conclusion. Iraq was not involving in the attacks to advance its geostrategic interests, such as plans to construct a natural gas pipeline through Afghanistan. Other conspiracy theories revolve around authorities having advance knowledge of the attacks and deliberately ignoring or assisting the attackers.
The multiple attacks made on the US by terrorists using hijacked aircraft on 11 September 2001 have proved attractive to conspiracy theorists. Theories may include a reference to missile or hologram technology. By far, the most common theory is that the attacks were in fact control demolitions, a theory that has been rejected by the engineering profession and the 9/11 Commission.
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